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Insights from practitioners in Information Management

Issue 24 – Ethics in an online world

Welcome:
Welcome to this months issue of Information Overload.  This month we will be looking at the issue of ethics in an online world. And in particular what do you do when you come across documents that you know should not be viewable in an open environment but are?
 
In this Issue we will be looking at:
• The Invisible Web and legal/ethical issues for librarians and library technicians relating to confidential documents.
• Google Hacking
• Hacker/Cracker – definitions
• But I found it by accident – now what?

The Invisible Web and legal/ethical issues for librarians and library technicians relating to confidential documents.
I will begin this month’s newsletter with a subject raised by Elizabeth Swan on the aliaINFOG List Serv a few days ago. She says: “An interesting issue has been raised by professional colleagues on an overseas e- list regarding the availability of “company confidential” or “internal use only” documents found on the open web.

Even in Google and presumably other search engines, searching on the phrases “internal use” or “company confidential” retrieves documents on some Australian websites that apparently are not for public viewing.
 
There are also documents on the web saying how important it is to carefully check if documents being made available via the web are confidential or not, but apparently there are webmasters in Australia (as in other countries) that are not doing that rigorously.

As information professionals what are our obligations regarding these documents?  What are the ethical and legal issues? Do we have an obligation as information professionals to contact the website owners? Or the website designers? Or is it the responsibility of the website owner to ensure the security of its internal or confidential documents?”

Google Hacking
Elizabeth mentions the use of Google (and other search engines) to locate documents that could be described as “sensitive”.  According to cybersecurity experts they say “an increasing number of provocative or putatively secret documents are online in out-of-the-way corners of computers all over the globe, leaving the government, individuals, and companies vulnerable to security breaches.” 

Online Search Engines Help Lift Cover of Privacy, Yuki Noguchi. Washington Post Feb 9, 2001: Page A01 http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A24053-2004Feb8
A quick search of Google gives hundreds of articles, tips, tricks and how to’s on the subject of searching for this kind of material, and is known affectionately by the “Googledorks” as “Google Hacking” or “Google Hack”. For instance:
The site: operator instructs Google to restrict a search to a specific web site or domain. The web site to search must be supplied after the colon.
The filetype: operator instructs Google to search only within the text of a particular type of file. The file type to search must be supplied after the colon eg., archiving filetype:pdf note there is no full stop (period) before the file extension,  gives 193,000 hits (25/8/04).
The link: operator instructs Google to search within hyperlinks for a search term.
The cache: operator displays the version of a web page as it appeared when Google crawled the site. The URL must be supplied after the colon.
The intitle: operator instructs Google to search for a term within the title of a document.
The inurl: operator instructs Google to search only within the URL (web address) of a document.  The search term must follow the colon.
Information taken from “Google Hacking Mini-Guide” Johnny Long, May 7, 2004  http://www.informit.com
More information can also be found on the advanced search options page on Google itself.

Hacker/Cracker  – definitions:
It is perhaps wise at this stage to give a couple of definitions of the term “Hacker” and “Cracker”. These definitions have been taken from the Free Online Dictionary of Computing. http://wombat.doc.ic.ac.uk/foldoc/foldoc.cgi?hacker

A Hacker is “a person who enjoys exploring the details of programmable systems and how to stretch their capabilities, as opposed to most users, who prefer to learn only the minimum necessary. The term “hacker” also tends to connote membership in the global community defined by the net. It also implies that the person described is seen to subscribe to some version of the hacker ethic.

The “Hacker Ethic” is the belief that information sharing is a powerful positive good, and that it is an ethical duty of hackers to share their expertise by writing free software and facilitating access to information and to computing resources wherever possible. And that:
The belief that system-cracking for fun and exploration is ethically OK as long as the cracker commits no theft, vandalism, or breach of confidentiality. 

The dictionary goes onto say that “Sense 2 is more controversial: some people consider the act of cracking itself to be unethical, like breaking and entering. But the belief that “ethical” cracking excludes destruction at least moderates the behaviour of people who see themselves as “benign” crackers (see also samurai). On this view, it may be one of the highest forms of hackerly courtesy to (a) break into a system, and then (b) explain to the sysop, preferably by e-mail from a superuser account, exactly how it was done and how the hole can be plugged – acting as an unpaid (and unsolicited) tiger team.

A cracker on the other hand is an individual who attempts to gain unauthorised access to a computer system. These individuals are often malicious and have many means at their disposal for breaking into a system.”

But I found it by accident – now what?
There are a lot of people who routinely search the internet and find interesting items quite by accident, as opposed to deliberately trying to find material that may be of a sensitive nature.

It has to be said that once a document has found it’s way onto the visible or “surface web” it is very hard to shoe horn it back into a secure site, and could be likened to trying to get toothpaste back into a tube, in other words it is virtually impossible to do. One of the main reasons for this is simple; once a robot or spider has found your site and merrily indexed all that it can find, then unless you have devised a program to delete every cache on every pc, server and ISP, chances are your information will always be available to those who want to find it, or stumble across it by accident.

Is it the fault of the site owner, “Just stick it on the web for goodness sake”, the host, or the web designer? There are some people who are simply not aware that what they are trying to link is “private and confidential” for instance some IT professionals, and web designers will not check whether the document or item is of a sensitive or confidential nature, assumptions will be made, they haven’t been told, nor have they bothered to have a look. To the younger IT person, the problem may stem from the fact that they do not have the business “smarts” to know that what they consider to be an abstract problem “Can I put this document on the web or can’t I?” may actually be a breach of privacy. Or is the fault that this kind of document can be found be a result of the “person responsible for the web”, be it the “IT” department or a.n.other for not putting up a secure enough firewall?

Of course we also have to contend with “insiders”, those people who deliberately set about leaking information into the worldwide domain of the surface web, and the well-meaning individuals who email confidential documents to colleagues with little or no thought as to the consequences of their actions.  As we are constantly advised – writing an email is akin to writing a postcard and putting it on the worldwide bulletin board.  A secret is no longer a secret if more than one person knows about it.

So what is the answer? Well part of it lies with everyone who has input to the design and content of the company’s web site.  Do not make assumptions, and make sure that you brief your web designer(s) and IT professionals properly. Don’t assume someone else will do it for you.

As to what do we do with the information that we find? Well it seems to me that ultimately it comes down to individual choice.  Do we choose to use it and gain competitive advantage over others, or do we not use it, send the document owner a message and advise them to plug the holes?

But in the mean time – Happy searching!